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Alveoli are the air sacs deep within the lungs, where gas/blood exchange occurs. Alveoli are composed of distal airway epithelium, which consists of type 1 and 2 alveolar epithelial cells (AEC-1 and -2), which specialize in gas exchange and expression of surfactant proteins, respectively.
The alveoli appear in mice postnatally between P5 and P30. In humans alveoli continue to form throughout the first eight years of life