The column cytotrophoblast cells are located distal to the villous stroma and acquire invasive characteristics in a process which involves epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), facilitating their migration to, and invasion of, the maternal decidua. The phenotypic switch requires the production and/or secretion of collagenases, metalloproteinases, aminopeptidases, and an assortment of additional enzymes by the cells. The activity of these proteins enables their infiltration into the decidua by promoting degradation of the extracellular matrix.
Column cytotrophoblast cells make up the middle layer of the human placenta, and are parallel to the mouse spongiotrophoblast cells in the middle layer of the mouse placenta.
Mouse spongiotrophoblast cells can differentiate to secondary trophoblast giant cells (TGCs) in the external layer of the mouse placenta. TGCs are terminally differentiated polyploid cells that are formed by endoreduplication and mediate invasion of the conceptus into the maternal decidua. Their of diverse origins, with a first wave of primary TGCs arising from mural trophectoderm cells, whereas subsequent secondary giant cells arise from the ectoplacental cone progenitor cells.
Mouse gene expression described herein refers to spongiotrophoblast cells.
Multiple AncestorsSingle AncestorNo DescendantsDevelops fromPart of Parent