The aim of this study was to assess the effect of subcapsular injection of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in the 5/6 nephrectomy (5/6 Nx) model of chronic renal failure. 5/6 Nx rats showed significant hypertension, which was reduced by MSCs within 30 days of treatment. Increased albuminuria and serum creatinine observed within 15 and 30 days of Nx rats were also reduced following subcapsular injection of MSCs. Moreover, a significant reduction in the glomerulosclerosis index was observed after MSCs treatment. MSC migration into the renal parenchyma 5, 15, and 30 days after subcapsular injection was demonstrated. Data demonstrated that subcapsular injection of MSC in 5/6 Nx rats is associated with renoprotective effects.