Hematological cancer involves malignant neoplasms that affect blood, bone marrow, and lymph nodes. Hematological malignancies may develop from either myeloid or lymphoid blood cell lineages.
Cell therapy utilizing hematopoietic stem cells is a well-established therapeutic modality for many hematologic malignancies, due to the resulting partial or full hematopoietic and immune function reconstitution.
T-lymphocyte-based therapy has enormous potential in treating hematological malignancies as well. The positive clinical outcomes of donor lymphocyte infusion into patients in relapse after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation pioneered the concept that T lymphocytes can effectively control tumor growth. Cell culture strategies for generation of T-lymphocytes with selective activity against tumor cells were developed. Genetically manipulated and ex vivo-expanded antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes promote sustained antitumor effects in patients with hematologic malignancies.