Thromboangiitis obliterans (TAO, Buerger's disease) involves progressive inflammation and thrombosis of arteries and veins of the extremities, characterized by pain in the affected areas, at rest and while walking. Cigarette smoking has been implicated as the primary etiology of the disease.
Cell therapy for necrosis in the legs of patients with TAO may improve symptoms through vascular regeneration and induction of neoangiogenesis. Studies indicate that autologous bone marrow stem cell therapy improves the clinical status and reduces amputation factors in the limbs with symptomatic TAO. Peripheral blood-derived mononuclear stem cells and adipose tissue-derived mononuclear stem cells have been shown to be effective in preventing disease progression, decrease major amputation rates, and improving quality of life.