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Differentiation of stem cells into dopaminergic neurons using defined factors
This 2-step protocol allows for the generation of midbrain dopaminergic neurons from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) using cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1/CXCL12), pleiotrophin (PTN), insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2), and ephrin B1 (EFNB1). The differentiated cells express midbrain dopaminergic neuron-specific markers and demonstrate electrophysiological activity.