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EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT & STEM CELL COMPENDIUM
Content

Review of MEDICAL EMBRYOLOGY Book by BEN PANSKY, Ph.D, M.D.

PART I.
EMBRYOGENESIS

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  1. Terms of description .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    1
  2. The male reproductive system .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    2
  3. Gamete (germ cell) formation, or gametogenesis: spermatogenesis .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    3
  4. Gametogenesis: oogenesis .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    4
  5. Anomalies (abnormalities) of gametogenesis .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    5
  6. The adult female uterus .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    6
  7. The adult uterine tubes (oviduct, fallopian tube, or salpinx) .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    7
  8. Reproductive cycles: the ovarian cycle and ovulation .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    8
  9. Reproductive cycles: the ovarian cycle and the corpus luteum .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    9
  10. Reproductive cycles: the menstrual (uterine) cycle .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    10
  11. Germ cell viability and movement and abnormal implantation sites .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    11
  12. Fertilization .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    12
  13. Implantation and its preparation: general concepts .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    13
  14. Week 1 of embryonic development: ovulation to implantation .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    14
  15. Week 2 of development: bilaminar germ disk embryo* .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    15
  16. Week 2 of development: days 10 to 14 .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    16
  17. Review of week 2 and abnormal development .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    17
  18. Week 3 of development: trilaminar germ disk embryo formation and gastrulation .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    18
  19. Week 3 of development: the notochord, neural tube, and allantois .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    19
  20. Week 3 of development: intraembryonic mesoderm, somite development, and the intraembryonic coelom .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    20
  21. Week 3 of development: cardiovascular system development .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    21
  22. Week 3 of development: trophoblast and villus development .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    22
  23. Weeks 4 to 6 of development: the embryonic period .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    23
  24. Embryonic period: weeks 7 and 8 and external embryo appearance .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    24
  25. Germ layers and their derivatives .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    25
  26. Embryonic folding and flexion of the embryo .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    26
  27. General mechanisms of normal development .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    27
  28. The fetal period: weeks 9 to 20 of development .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    28
  29. The fetal period: weeks 21 to term .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    29
  30. Multiple pregnancies .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    30
  31. Congenital malformations and their causes .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    31
  32. Congenital malformations and their causes: human malformations .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    32
  33. The fetal membranes .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    33
  34. Amnion, allantois, and yolk sac .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    34
  35. The umbilical cord .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    35
  36. Uterine growth during pregnancy and parturation .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    36
  37. Fetal-maternal incompatibility .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    37
  38. The placenta: general discussion .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    38
  39. The placental villi .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    39
  40. The placenta: decidual formation .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    40
  41. Placental physiology .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    41
  42. Placental circulation .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    42
  43. Hormonal balance and tests for pregnancy .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    43

PART II.
ORGANOGENESIS

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UNIT ONE: BODY CAVITIES AND MESENTERIES
  1. Body cavities: coelomic divisions .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    44
  2. Body cavities: pleuropericardial and pleuroperitoneal membranes .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    45
  3. Body cavities: the lesser peritoneal sac (omental bursa) and dorsal mesogastrium .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    46
  4. Development of the mesenteries .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    47
  5. Development of the diaphragm .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    48
UNIT TWO: THE BRANCHIAL APPARATUS The Face, Pharynx, and Related Branchial Derivatives
  1. The branchial apparatus: the branchial (pharyngeal) arches .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    49
  2. The pharyngeal clefts and pouches .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    50
  3. Malformations related to the branchial apparatus .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    51
  4. Branchial arch derivatives: the thyroid gland .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    52
  5. The branchial apparatus: the floor of the pharynx -- tongue and associated structures .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    53
  6. The face .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    54
  7. Development of the palate .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    55
  8. Congenital malformations of the lip and palate .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    56
UNIT THREE: THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Nasal Cavities, Larynx, Trachea, Bronchi, and Lungs
  1. Development of the nasal cavities .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    57
  2. Development of the lower respiratory system: larynx and trachea .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    58
  3. Development of the lower respiratory system: the bronchi and surrounding structures .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    59
  4. Development of the lower respiratory system: the lungs and terminal respiratory tubes .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    60
  5. Development of the lower respiratory system: surfactant and respiratory movements .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    61
  6. Malformations of the lower respiratory tract .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    62
UNIT FOUR: THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM
  1. Development of the muscular system .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    63
UNIT FIVE: THE SKELETAL AND ARTICULAR SYSTEMS
  1. Development of the skeletal and articular systems: cartilage and bone histogenesis .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    64
  2. Bone histogenesis: secondary ossification centers and joint development .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    65
  3. Development of the axial skeleton .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    66
  4. Appendicular skeleton and skull development .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    67
  5. Congenital malformations of the skeletal system .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    68
  6. Development of the limbs .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    69
  7. Dermatome and cutaneous innervation of the limbs .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    70
  8. Malformations of the appendicular skeleton (the limbs) .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    71
UNIT SIX: THE INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM The Skin, Cutaneous Appendages, and Teeth
  1. Development of the integumentary system: ectodermal derivatives .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    72
  2. Congenital malformations of the integumentary system .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    73
  3. Development of the hair and associated structures .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    74
  4. Development of the nails .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    75
  5. Development of the mammary glands .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    76
  6. Development of the teeth .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    77
  7. Tooth eruption and malformations of the teeth .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    78
UNIT SEVEN: THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
  1. The digestive system: general introduction* .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    79
  2. The foregut: esophagus and stomach .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    80
  3. The foregut: the omental bursa and duodenum .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    81
  4. The foregut: the liver and biliary apparatus (gallbladder and ducts) .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    82
  5. The foregut: the pancreas and spleen .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    83
  6. Development of the midgut: general introduction .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    84
  7. The midgut: fixation, cecum and appendix .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    85
  8. Development of the hindgut .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    86
  9. Congenital malformations of the digestive system: foregut malformations .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    87
  10. Congenital malformations of the digestive system: midgut malformations .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    88
  11. Midgut malformations .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    89
  12. Congenital malformations of digestive system: hindgut malformations .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    90
UNIT EIGHT: THE URINARY SYSTEM
  1. The urinary or excretory system: intermediate plate, nephrogenic cord, and pronephros .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    91
  2. The urinary or excretory system: the mesonephros .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    92
  3. The urinary or excretory system: the metanephros .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    93
  4. The urinary or excretory system: the definitive kidney .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    94
  5. The urinary or excretory system: the urinary bladder and urethra .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    95
  6. Malformations of the urinary system .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    96
  7. Malformations of the urinary system .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    97
UNIT NINE: THE GENITAL OR REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
  1. The genital or reproductive system: the primitive genital system .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    98
  2. Development of the testis .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    99
  3. The genital or reproductive system: primive genital tracts and sex determination .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    100
  4. Differentiation of the male genital tracts and auxiliary glands .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    101
  5. Development of the male external genital organs .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    102
  6. Inguinal canal development and testicular migration .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    103
  7. Development of the female genital system: ovarian differentiation .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    104
  8. Differentiation of the female genital tracts: uterus, vagina, auxiliary glands, mesenteries .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    105
  9. Development of the upper and lower portions of the female genital tract .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    106
  10. Development of the female external genital organs .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    107
  11. Sexual anomalies of genetic and hormonal origin .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    108
  12. Genital malformations the male .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    109
  13. Uterovaginal malformations of the female .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    110
  14. Adult derivatives of embryonic urogenital structures .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    111
UNIT TEN: THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEMCardiovascular and Lymphatic System
  1. Hematopoiesis and general development of the circulatory system .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    112
  2. Cardiovascular circulatory and lymphatic systems: early development .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    113
  3. Development of the heart: cardiac tube development .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    114
  4. Development of the heart: formation of the heart loop .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    115
  5. Pericardial cavity development and primitive heart circulation .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    116
  6. Atrioventricular and interatrial septation and development .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    117
  7. Development of sinus venosus and associated veins .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    118
  8. The right and left atrial walls and the venous valves .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    119
  9. Septation of ventricles, truncus arteriosus, and conus cordis .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    120
  10. The cardiac valves and conducting system .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    121
  11. The primitive circulatory network .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    122
  12. Development of the arterial system .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    123
  13. The aortic arches .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    124
  14. Development of the venous system: primitive venous network and superior vena cava .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    125
  15. Development of the venous system: the inferior vena cava .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    126
  16. Development of the venous system: the portal system and pulmonary veins .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    127
  17. Development of the lymphatic system .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    128
  18. The circulatory system before and after birth .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    129
  19. Adult derivatives of fetal structures .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    130
  20. Malformations of the cardiovascular system .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    131
  21. Malformations of the heart and great vessels .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    132
  22. Malformations of the heart and great vessels .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    133
  23. Complex cardiac malformations .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    134
UNIT ELEVEN: THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
  1. Early development of the nervous system .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    135
  2. Early nervous system development: the neural tube and neural crest .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    136
  3. General development of the central nervous system .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    137
  4. Phylogenesis of the nervous system .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    138
  5. Metameric organization of the nervous system .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    139
  6. General considerations related to the anatomy of the spinal cord .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    140
  7. The spinal cord: normal development .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    141
  8. The spinal cord: differentiation of nerve and glial cells .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    142
  9. The spinal cord: neural crest cells and myelination .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    143
  10. Spinal cord length and spinal meninges .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    144
  11. Malformations of the spinal cord .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    145
  12. Introduction to brainstem development .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    146
  13. The brainstem: myelencephalon (fifth vesicle) – basal motor plate .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    147
  14. The brainstem: myelencephalon (fifth vesicle) – alar sensory and roof plates .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    148
  15. The brainstem: metencephalon (fourth vesicle) .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    149
  16. The brainstem: metencephalon (fourth vesicle) – the cerebellum .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    150
  17. The brainstem: mesencephalon (third vesicle) .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    151
  18. The peripheral nervous system and cranial nerves .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    152
  19. The diencephalon (second vesicle) .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    153
  20. The telencephalon (first vesicle): phylogenesis .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    154
  21. The brain: the telencephalon (first vesicle) .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    155
  22. The brain: the telencephalon (first vesicle) – lobes and pallial development .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    156
  23. The telencephalon (first vesicle): development of the rhinencephalon .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    157
  24. Histogenesis of the cerebral cortex .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    158
  25. Commissures of the telencephalon .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    159
  26. The coverings and vascularization of the brain .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    160
  27. Malformations of the brain .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    161
  28. Malformations of the brain .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    162
  29. Malformations of the brain: hydrocephalus .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    163
  30. The autonomic nervous system: the sympathetic system .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    164
  31. The autonomic nervous system: the parasympathetic system .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    165
  32. The olfactory system .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    166
  33. The eye: optic cup and lens vesicle, retina, iris, and ciliary body .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    167
  34. The eye: lens, choroid, sclera, cornea, and optic nerve .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    168
  35. Congenital malformations of the eye .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    169
  36. The vestibulocochlear system: the external ear and the eardrum (tympanic membrane) .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    170
  37. The vestibulocochlear system: the internal ear – membranous labyrinth .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    171
  38. The vestibulocochlear system: the internal ear – bony labyrinth .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    172
  39. The vestibulocochlear system: histogenesis of the internal ear .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    173
  40. The vestibulocochlear system: the middle ear .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    174
  41. Congenital malformations of the vestibulocochlear system .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    175
  42. The hypophysis (pituitary gland): glandular primordium .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    176
  43. The hypophysis (pituitary gland): neural primordium and portal system .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    177
  44. Role of the hypophysis (pituitary gland): physiology and pathology .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    178
  45. The paraganglionic system: the paraganglia .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    179
  46. Development of the adrenal (suprarenal) gland .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    180
  47. Pathology associated with the adrenal gland .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    181

APPENDIX

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  1. Appendix 1. correlated human development .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    182
  2. Appendix 2. germ layer derivatives .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    183
  3. Appendix 3. critical periods of human development (sensitivity to teratogens) .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    184
  4. Appendix 4. teratogens known to cause human malformations .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    185
  5. Appendix 5. physiologic development of the central nervous system .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    186
  6. Appendix 6. prematurity .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    187
  7. Appendix 7. references .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    188