The mandibular arch muscles (MAMs) are a major constitute of the branchiomeric craniofacial muscles which control feeding, breathing and facial expression. These muscles originate in the pharyngeal mesoderm and are characterized by a genetic program similar to that of the adjacent second heart field, progenitor cells which gives rise to the majority of the heart. The cranial paraxial mesoderm and head lateral (splanchnic) mesoderm cells heavily contribute to formation of these muscles. Mandibular arch muscle anlagen eventually split, via an unidentified mechanism, to form different facial and mastication muscles: mandibular adductors, masseter, temporalis, lateral/medial pterygoid anterior digastric, mylohyoid and suprahyoid muscles. MAMs are innervated by the trigeminal ganglion.